BAZA WIEDZY

Stal i metale – co o nich wiemy?

Stal i metale odgrywają kluczową rolę w rozwoju wielu gałęzi gospodarki. Pełnią ważne funkcje m.in. w przemyśle maszynowym i kolejowym, a także w budownictwie i górnictwie. Wykorzystuje się je przy produkcji elementów odpowiadających za trwałość i wytrzymałość złożonych konstrukcji.

Stal charakteryzuje się jednorodną strukturą. Wyróżnia się różne jej rodzaje – można sklasyfikować je pod względem wytrzymałości, którą określa się często za pomocą granicy plastyczności materiału. Przykładowo, stal wykorzystywana w branży budowlanej do wykonywania najróżniejszych konstrukcji powinna charakteryzować się znaczną plastycznością. Cechę tę można uzyskać, a niekiedy nawet zwiększyć, poprzez poddanie materiału specjalnej obróbce cieplnej.

Istotną rolę w obróbce stali odgrywa temperatura. Pod jej wpływem materiał wydłuża się lub kurczy. Liniowy współczynnik wydłużenia termicznego przy temperaturze w przedziale od 0 do 1000oC wynosi średnio Lt=0,000012.

Za sprawą tych właściwości stal jest materiałem szczególnie trwałym i bezpiecznym w użytkowaniu.

Wytrzymała i plastyczna stal

Kalkulator

NOWOCZESNY SPRZĘT

pręt / wałek okrągły

tabela twardości

Porównanie twardości HB - HRC - HV - Rm
Twardość Brinela
HB
Twardość Rockwella
HRC
Twardość Vickersa
HV
Wytrzymałość na rozciąganie
Rm [Mpa]
74565,3840-
713---
68261,7737-
65460,0697-
62758,7667-
60257,3640-
57856,0515-
55554,75912055
53453,55691985
51452,15471889
49551,05281820
47849,65081737
46148,54911668
44547,14721585
42945,74551509
41544,54401462
40143,14251392
38841,84101330
37540,43961269
36339,13831220
35237,93721179
34136,63601131
33135,53501096
32134,33391062
31133,13281027
30232,13191006
29330,9309972
28529,9301951
27728,8292924
26927,6284886
26226,6276876
25525,4269848
24824,2261827
24122,8253800
23521,7247796
22920,5241755
223-234-
217-228724
212-222703
207-218689
202-212676
197-207655
192-202641
187-196620
183-192613
179-188600
174-182586
170-178572
167-175558
163-171545
156-163524
149-156503
143-150489
137-143462
131-137448
126-132434
121-127414
116-122400
111-117386
Porównanie gatunków stali w różnych systemach
Materiał Germany
DIN
U.S.A.
AISI/SAE UNS
France
AFNOR
Great Britain
BS
Italy
UNI
Sweden
SS
Spain
UNE
Japan
JIS
-----MARM-302, 322, 509---
-----Stellite 6, 21, 31---
--R30155--N155---
--R30188--Haynes 188---
--R30556--Haynes 556 (HS556)---
--R30605--L605 (Haynes 25)---
--S41800--Greek Ascoloy---
--S66286--A-286---
0.6010GG10CLASS20Ft10D-G10110-FC100
0.6015GG15CLASS25Ft15DGRADE150G15115FG15FC150
0.6020GG20CLASS30Ft20DGRADE220G20120FG20FC200
0.6025GG25CLASS35Ft25DGRADE260G25125FG25FC250
0.6030GG30CLASS45Ft30DGRADE300G30130FG30FC300
0.6035GG35CLASS50Ft35DGRADE350G35135FG35FC350
0.6040GG40CLASS55Ft40DGRADE400-140-FC400
0.7033GGG35.3----0717-15-FCD350
0.7040GGG4060-40-18FCS400-12SNG420/12GGG400717-02GGG40FCD400
0.7043GGG40.3-FGS370-17SNG370/17-0717-12-FCD400
0.7050GGG5080-55-06FGS500-7SNG500/7GGG500727-02GGG50FCD500
0.7060GGG60-FGS600-3SNG600/3GGG600732-03GGG60FCD600
0.7070GGG70100-70-03FGS700-2SNG700/2GGG700737-01GGG70FCD700
0.8035GTW-35-MB35-7W340/3--GTW35-
0.8040GTW-40-MB40-10W410/4GMB40-GTW40-
0.8045GTW-45---GMB45-GTW45-
0.8055GTW-55-----GTW55-
0.8065GTW-65-----GTW65-
0.8135GTS-3532510MN35-10B340/12-810GTS35-
0.8145GTS-4540010-P440/7-852GTS45-
0.8155GTS-5550005MP50-5P510/4-854GTS55-
0.8165GTS-6570003MP60-3P570/3-856GTS65-
0.8170GTS-7090001M870-2P690/2-0862; 0864GTS70-
0.9620G-X260NiCr42Ni- Hard 2-Grade 2A-0512-00--
0.9625G-X330NiCr42Ni- Hard 1-Grade 2B-0513-00--
0.9630G-X300CrNiSi952Ni- Hard 4------
0.9635G-X300CrMo153-------
0.9640G-X300CrMoNi1521-------
0.9645G-X260CrMoNi2021-------
0.9650G-X260Cr27A532IIIA25%Cr-Grade 3D-0466-00--
0.9655G-X300CrMo271-------
0.9655G-X300CrMo271A532IIIA25%Cr-Grade 3E----
1.0036USt37-3---FE37BFU---
1.0050St50-2---FE50--SM50YA
1.0060St60-2---FE60-2--SM570
1.0070St70-2---FE70-2---
1.0332St141008-14491CR-1447--
1.0401C151015CC12080M15C15C161350F.111S15C
1.0402C221020CC20050A20C20C211450F.112-
1.0402C221020CC20050A20C20C211450F.112S20C,S22C
1.0501C351035CC35060A35C351550F.113S35C
1.0503C451045CC45080M46C451650F.114S45C
1.0535C551055-070M55C551655-S55C
1.0601C601060CC55080A62C60--S60C
1.07159SMn281213S250230M07CF9SMn28191211SMn28SUM22
1.07189SMnPb2812L3S250Pb-CF9SMnPb28191411SMnPb28SUM22L
1.072110S201108-210M15----
1.1121Ck101010CC10040A10-1264-S10C
1.1141Ck151015XC12080M15C161370C15KS15C
1.1158Ck251025XC25070M25C25--S25C
1.1183Cf351035XC38TS060A35C361572-S35C
1.1191Ck451045XC42080M46C451672C45KS45C
1.1203Ck551055XC55070M55C50-C55KS55C
1.1213Cf531050XC48TS060A52C531674-S50C
1.1221Ck601060XC60080A62C601678-S58C
1.1545C1051---C100KU--SK3
1.1545C105W1---C100KU--SK3
1.2067100Cr6L3Y100C6BL3--100Cr6SUJ2
1.2210115CrV3L2100C3-107CrV3KU---
1.224151CrV4-------
1.231140CrMnMo7---35CrMo8KU---
1.2343X38CrMoV51H11Z38CDV5BH11X37CrMoV51KU-X37CrMoV5SKD6
1.2344X40CrMoV51H13Z40CDV5BH13X40CrMoV511KU2242X40CrMoV5SKD61
1.2379X155CrVMo121D2Z160CDV12BD2X155CrVMo121KU--SKD11
1.2419105WCr6-105WC13-107WCr5KU--SKS31
1.2419105WCr6-105WC13-10WCr62140105WCr5SKS31
1.2436X210CrW12---X215CrW121KU2312X210CrW12SKD2
1.254245WCrV7S1-BS145WCrV8KU271045WCrSi8-
1.255060WCrV7S155WC20-58WCr9KU~2710--
1.2581X30WCrV93H21Z30WCV9BH21X30WCrV93KU-X30WCrV9SKD5
1.2601X 165CrMoV12---X165CrMoW12KU2310X160CrMoV12-
1.2606X37CrMoW 51H12Z35CWDV5BH12X35CrMoW05KU-F.537SKD62
1.271355NiCrMoV6L655NCDV7---F.520.SSKH1;SKT4
1.272150NiCr13----~2550--
1.276275CrMoNiW67-------
1.284290MnCrV8O290MV8BO288MnV8KU---
1.3202S12-1-4-5--BT15HS12-1-5-5-12-1-5-5-
1.3207S10-4-3-10-Z130WKCDVBT42HS10-4-3-10--SKH57
1.3243S6-5-2-5T15KCV06-05-05-04-02-HS6-5-2-527236-5-2-5SKH55
1.3246S7-4-2-5-Z110WKCDV07-05-04-HS7-4-2-57-4-2-5M35-
1.3247S2-10-1-8-Z110DKCWV09-08-04BM42HS2-9-1-82-10-1-8M41SKH51
1.3249S2-9-2-8M42-BM34--2-9-2-8-
1.3343S6-5-2M35Z85WDCVBM2HS6-5-2-52722-SKH9; SKH51
1.3501100Cr2E50100100C2-----
1.3505100Cr652100100C6534A99100Cr62258-SUJ2
1.4000X6Cr13403Z6C13403S17X6Cr32301F.3110SUS403
1.4001X6Cr14-----F.8401410S, 429
1.4002X6CrAl13405Z8CA12405S17X6CrAl13--SUS405
1.4006(G-)X10Cr13SUS410Z10C13410S21X12Cr132302F.3401SUS410
1.4016X8Cr17430Z8C17430S15X8Cr172320F.3113SUS430
1.4021X20Cr13420Z20C13420S37X20Cr132303-SUS420J1
1.4027G-X20Cr14-Z20C13M420C29---SCS2
1.4034X46Cr13-Z40CM420S45X40Cr142304F.3405-
1.4057X20CrNi17431Z6CNi6.02431S29X16CrNi162321-SUS431
1.4086G-X120Cr29--452C11----
1.4104X12CrMoS17430FZ10CF17441S29X10CrS172383F.3117SUS430F
1.4113X6CrMo17434Z8CD1701434S17X8CrMo172325-SUS434
1.4125X105CrMo17-Z100CD17-X 105CrMo17--SUS440C
1.4301X5CrNi189304Z6CN18.09304S15X5CrNi18102332F.3551SUS304
1.4310X12CrNi177301Z12CN17.07301S21X2CrNi18072331F.3517SUS301
1.4311X2CrNiN1810304LNZ2CN18.10304S62X2CrNiN18102371-SUS304LN
1.4312G-X10CrNi188-Z10CN18.9M302C25----
1.4340G-X40CrNi274-------
1.4350X5CrNi189304Z6CN18.09304S31X5CrNi18102332/2333F.3551-
1.4362X2CrNiN234S32304Z2CN23-04AZ--2327--
1.4401X5CrNiMo17122316Z6CND17.11316S16X5CrNiMo17122347F.3543SUS316
1.4404X2CrNiMo1810316LZ2CND17.12316S12X2CrNiMo17122343/2348/2553-SUS316
1.4410G-X10CrNiMo189-Z5CND20.12M-----
1.4417X2CrNiMoSi195S31500---2376--
1.4429X2CrNiMoN17133316LNZ2CND17.13316S63X2CrNiMoN17132375-SUS316LN
1.4435X2CrNiMo18143316LZ2CND17.12316S13X2CrNiMo17122353-SCS16
1.4436X5CrNiMo17133316Z6CND18-12-03316S33X8CrNiMo17132343/2347-SUS316
1.4438X2CrNiMo18164317LZ2CND19.15317S12X2CrNiMo18162367-SUS317L
1.4460X8CrNiMo275S32900---2324-SUS329J1
1.4462X2CrNiMoN2253-Z2CND22-05-03--2977--
1.4500G-X7NiCrMoCuNb2520-23NCDU25.20M-----
1.4541X10CrNiMoTi1810321Z6CNT18.10321S12X6CrNiTi18112337F.3553F.3523SUS321
1.4550X10CrNiNb347Z6CNNb18.10347S17X6CrNiNb18112338F.3552F.3524SUS347
1.4552G-X7CrNiNb189-Z4CNNb19.10M347C17----
1.4558X2NiCrAlTi3220N08800-NA15Incoloy 800---
1.4562X1NiCrMoCu32287N08031------
1.4563X1NiCrMoCuN31274N08028Z1NCDU31.27-----
1.4571X10CrNiMoTi1810316TiZ6NDT17.12320S17X6CrNiMoTi17122350F.3535SUS316TI
1.4583X10CrNiMoNb1812318Z6CNDN1713B-X6CrNiMoNb---
1.4585G-X7CrNiMoCuNb1818---X6CrNiMoTi1712---
1.4720X20CrMo13-------
1.4724X10CrA113405Z10C13403S17X10CrA112-F.311SUS405
1.4742X10CrA118430Z10CAS18430S15X8Cr17-F.3113SUS430
1.4762X10CrA124446Z10CAS24-X16Cr262322-SUH446
1.4821X20CrNiSi254-Z20CNS25.04-----
1.4823G-X40CrNiSi274-------
1.4828X15CrNiSi2012309Z15CNS20.12309S24---SUH309
1.4845X12CrNi2521310SZ12CN2520310S24X6CrNi25202361F.331SUH310; SUS310S
1.4864X12NiCrSi330Z12NCS35.16----SUH330
1.4864X12NiCrSi3616N08330Z12NCS35.16NA17---SUH330
1.4882X50CrMnNiNbN219-Z50CMNNb21.09-----
1.4958X5NiCrAlTi3120-------
1.4977X40CoCrNi2020-Z42CNKDWNb-----
1.541515Mo3ASTMA204GrA15D31501-24016Mo3KW291216Mo3-
1.542316Mo54520-1503-245-42016Mo5-16Mo5SB450M
1.562214Ni6ASTMA350LF516N6-14Ni6-15Ni6-
1.5662X8Ni9ASTMA353-1501.509; 50X10Ni9-XBNi09SL9N53
1.568012Ni192515Z18N5-----
1.571036NiCr6313535NC6640A35---SNC236
1.573214NiCr10341514NC11-16NiCr11-15NiCr11SNC415(H)
1.573636NiCr10343530NC11----SNC631(H)
1.575214NiCr143415;331012NC15655M13---SNC815(H)
1.575531NiCr14SNC83618NC13653M31----
1.586435NiCr18-------
1.651136CrNiMo4984040NCD3816M4038NiCrM04(KB)-33NiCrMo4SNCM447
1.652321NiCrMo2862020NCD2805M2020NiCrMo2250620NiCrMo2SNCM220(H)
1.654640NiCrMo228740-311-TYPE740NiCrM02(KB)-40NiCrMo2SNCM240
1.658235CrNiMo6434035NCD6817M4035NiCrMo6(KB)2541-SNCM447
1.658717CrNiMo6-18NCD6820A16--14NiCrMo13-
1.665714NiCrMo34--832M1315NiCrMo13-14NiCrMo131-
1.703334Cr4513232C4530A32-34Cr4(KB)35Cr4SCR430(H)
1.703541Cr4514042C4530M40--42Cr4SCR440(H)
1.704542Cr4514042C4TS530A4041Cr4224542Cr4SCr440
1.713116MnCr5511516MC5(527M20)16MnCr5251116MnCr5SCR415
1.717655Cr3515555C3527A60---SUP9(A)
1.721825CrMo4413025CD41717CDS11025CrMo4(KB)222555Cr3SM420;SCM430
1.722034CrMo44137;413535CD4708A3735CrMo4223434CrMo4SCM432;SCCRM3
1.722341CrMo44140;414242CD4TS708M4041CrMo4224442CrMo4SCM440
1.722542CrMo4414042CD4708M4042CrMo4224442CrMo4SCM440(H)
1.723849CrMo4-------
1.724216CrMo 4-18CrMo4--18CrMo4--
1.726215CrMo5-12CD4--221612CrMo4SCM415(H)
1.733513CrMo4 4ASTMA18215CD3.5/4.51501-620-Gr2714CrMo45-14CrMo45SPVAF12
1.733716CrMo 4 4A387Gr.12Cl.--A18CrMo45KW---
1.736132CrMo12-30CD12722M2432CrMo122240F.124.A-
1.736212CrMo 19 5-Z10CD5.053606-62516CrMo205---
1.738010CrMo9 10ASTMA182F.22 SPV-1501-622Gr31;45----
1.756142CrV6-------
1.770151CrMoV4-51CDV4-51CrMoV4---
1.771514MoV6 3--1503-660-440--13MoCrV6-
1.773324CrMoV55-20CDV6-21CrMoV511---
1.7755GS-45CrMoV104-------
1.807021CrMoV511---35NiCr9---
1.815950CrV46150-735A5051CrV42230-SUP10
1.815950CrV4615050CrV4735A5050CrV4223051CrV4SUP10
1.850941CrALMo7SACM64540CAD6,12905M3941CrAlMo7294041CrAlMo7-
1.852339CrMoV139--897M3936CrMoV12---
2.0240CuZn15C23000CuZn15CZ102----
2.0265CuZn30C26000CuZn30CZ106----
2.0321CuZn37C27200, C27700CuZn36, CuZn37CZ108C2700,C2720---
2.0592G-CuZn35Al1C86500U-Z36N3HTB1----
2.0596G-CuZn34Al2C86200U-Z36N3HTB1----
2.0966CuAl10Ni5Fe4C63000U-A10NCa104----
2.0975G-CuAl10NiB-148-52------
2.1050G-CuSn10C90700-CT1----
2.1052G-CuSn12C90800UE12PPb2----
2.1090G-CuSn7ZnPbC93200U-E7Z5Pb4-----
2.1096G-CuSn5ZnPbC83600U-E5Pb5Z5LG2----
2.1098G-CuSn2ZnPb-------
2.1176G-CuPb10SnC93700U-E10Pb10LB2----
2.1182G-CuPb15SnC93800U-Pb15E8LB1----
2.1188G-CuPb20SnC94100U-Pb20LB5----
2.1292G-CuCrF35C81500-CC1-FF----
2.1293CuCrZrC18200U-Cr0,8ZrCC102----
2.1871G-AlCu4TiMg-------
2.4360NiCu30Fe-NU30NA13Monel 400---
2.4375NiCu30 Al-NU30ATNA18Monel K-500---
2.4610NiMo16Cr16Ti---Hastelloy C-4---
2.4630NiCr20TiN06075NC20THR5, 203-4Nimonic 75---
2.4642NiCr29Fe-NC30Fe-Inconel 690---
2.4668NiCr19FeNbMoN07718NC19FeNb-Inconel 718---
2.4669NiCr15Fe7TiAlN07750NC15TNbA-Inconel X-750---
2.4685G-NiMo28N10001--Hastelloy B---
2.4694NiCr16Fe7TiAlN00751--Inconel 751---
2.4810G-NiMo30N10276--Hastelloy C---
2.4856NiCr22Mo9NbN06625NC22FeDNbNA21Inconel 625---
2.4858NiCr21MoN08825NC21FeDUNA16Incoloy 825---
3.0255Al99.51000A59050CL31/34/36----
3.1655AlCuSiPb-------
3.1754G-AlCu5Ni1,5-3,4345AlZnMgCu0,5AZ4GU/9051L86811-047050
3.2371G-AlSi7Mg4218B------
3.2373G-AlSi9Mg-------
3.2381G-AlSi10Mg-------
3.2382GD-AlSi10Mg-------
3.2383G-AlSi10Mg (Cu)A360.2-LM9-4253--
3.2383GK-AlSi10Mg (Cu)A360.2-LM9-4253--
3.2581G-AlSi12A413.2-LM6-4261--
3.2582GD-AlSi12A413.0---4247-A6061
3.2583G-AlSi12 (Cu)A413.1-LM20-4260-ADC12
3.3315AlMg1-------
3.3561G-AlMg5GD-AlSi12A-SU 12LN5-4252-AC4A
3.5101G-MgZn4SE1Zr1ZE41G-Z4TRMAG5----
3.5103MgSE3Zn2Zr1EZ33G-TR3Z2MAG6----
3.5106G-MgAg3SE2Zr1QE22G-Ag22,5MAG12----
3.5812G-MgAl8Zn1AZ81G-A9MAG1----
3.5912G-MgAl9Zn1AZ91G-A9Z1MAG7----
3.7025Ti 1R50250-2TA1----
3.7115TiAl5Sn2-------
3.7124TiCu2--2TA21-24----
3.7145TiAl6Sn2Zr4Mo2SiR54620------
3.7165TiAl6V4R56400T-A6VTA10-13; TA28TiAl6V4---
3.7175TiAl6V6Sn2R56620--Ti6V6Al2Sn---
3.7185TiAl4Mo4Sn2--TA45-51; TA57----
3.7195TiAl3V2.5-------
3.7225Ti1PdR52250-TP1----